Preterm birth in singleton and multiple pregnancies: evaluation of costs and perinatal outcomes (2023)

Table of Contents
Section snippets Population Population Perinatal outcomes Main findings Conflict of interest Authors’ contribution Ethical approval Funding Acknowledgements Cited by (23) Late preterm infants – Changing trends and continuing challenges Health economic aspects of late preterm and early term birth Estimating community-level costs of preterm birth Outcome Measurement of Family-integrated Care Models for Preterm Infants: A Scoping Review: Health Economic Evaluation Methods considering the Influence of Sample's Baseline Conditions on Intervention Effect Trends in costs of birth hospitalization and readmissions for late preterm infants Respiratory morbidity, healthcare resource use, and cost burden associated with extremely preterm birth in The Netherlands Recommended articles (6) High-grade CIN on cervical biopsy and predictors of the subsequent cone histology results in women undergoing immediate conization Predicting of disease genes for gestational diabetes mellitus based on network and functional consistency Lymphovascular space invasion and positive pelvic lymph nodes are independent risk factors for para-aortic nodal metastasis in endometrioid endometrial cancer Cervical HI-RTE elastography and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study Impact of a randomized trial on maintenance tocolysis on length of hospital admission of women with threatened preterm labor in The Netherlands Hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy) in the assessment of tubal patency in endometriosis patients FAQs Videos

Section snippets


For our study we used data from one prospective cohort study and three multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on preterm birth performed in the Dutch consortium for women's health research between 2006 and 2012. The prospective cohort study was the APOSTEL I (NTR 1857), which evaluated the use of fetal fibronectin testing and cervical length in 714 women with threatened preterm labour [12]. The APOSTEL II-trial (NTR 1336) compared maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine to placebo in 406


Of 2802 women, 1503 (53.6%) had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation; 501 in 1090 singleton (46%) and 1002 in 1712 multiple pregnancies (58.5%). Thirty-six multiple pregnancies (2%) ended in preterm birth <24 weeks. For singleton pregnancies these numbers were not available because the trials only included women with a singleton pregnancy ≥24 weeks.

Perinatal outcomes

In singletons, perinatal mortality and neonatal morbidity rates were high in extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks) [20]. The rates for

Main findings

This study is a cost analysis based on prospectively obtained data and gives insight in various perinatal outcomes in singleton and multiple pregnancies that ended in a preterm birth before 37 weeks and associated costs. For singletons a peak of total costs was seen at 24 weeks (€88,052 per delivery), whereas for multiples this peak was seen at 27 weeks (€169,571 per delivery). Thereafter, costs rapidly decreased by increase of duration of pregnancy; this decrease was sharper for multiples than

Conflict of interest


Authors’ contribution

GJB, MJCSP, BWJM, JAMvdP, MK and PJH conceived the idea for the study. GJB performed the data collection for the original studies. GJB, ES, and BWJM performed statistical analyses. MJCSP and GJB wrote the first draft. All authors interpreted the data, revised the article, and approved the final version.

Ethical approval

The individual studies were all approved by the research ethics committee of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam (Ref. no. 05/102, 07/286, 08/363 and 09/107 respectively).




We thank the principal investigators of the original study and trials for permission to use their collected data; AC Lim, J Vis, F Wilms, C Roos, T de Lange and SMS Liem.

Cited by (23)

  • Late preterm infants – Changing trends and continuing challenges

    2020, International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

    Late preterm infants, defined as newborns born between 340/7-366/7 weeks of gestational age, constitute a unique group among all premature neonates. Often overlooked because of their size when compared to very premature infants, this population is still vulnerable because of physiological and structural immaturity. Comprising nearly 75% of babies born less than 37 weeks of gestation, late preterm infants are at increased risk for morbidities involving nearly every organ system as well as higher risk of mortality when compared to term neonates. Neurodevelopmental impairment has especially been a concern for these infants. Due to various reasons, the rate of late preterm births continue to rise worldwide. Caring for this high risk population contributes a significant financial burden to health systems. This article reviews recent trends in regarding rate of late preterm births, common morbidities and long term outcomes with special attention to neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  • Health economic aspects of late preterm and early term birth

    2019, Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

    Citation Excerpt :

    A consistent inverse association was observed between gestational age at birth and initial hospitalization costs regardless of date of publication, country of publication, underpinning study design, costing methodology, or the denominators applied within the cost calculus (live births or survivors). Two studies estimated a less than two-fold differential in initial hospitalization costs between infants born late term and a comparator group born at term (≥37 weeks) [39,49], whilst a further two studies estimated an 8–10-fold differential in initial hospitalization costs between infants born at 34 weeks gestation and those born at term [42,50]. A further study analysed state-level-linked vital statistics and hospital discharge records in California covering 84,540 infants born late preterm and 92,241 infants born at term [47].

    (Video) Webinar Increased risk for preterm birth in singleton pregnancies

    Despite an increasing body of knowledge on the adverse clinical sequelae associated with late preterm birth and early term birth, little is known about their economic consequences or the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at their prevention or alleviation of their effects. This review assesses the health economic evidence surrounding late preterm and early term birth. Evidence is gathered on hospital resource use associated with late preterm and early term birth, economic costs associated with late preterm and early term birth, and economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies. The article highlights the limited perspective and time horizon of most studies of economic costs in this area; the limited evidence surrounding health economic aspects of early term birth; the gaps in current knowledge; and it discusses directions for future research in this area, including the need for validated tools for measuring preference-based health-related quality-of-life outcomes in infants that will aid cost-effectiveness-based decision-making.

  • Estimating community-level costs of preterm birth

    2016, Public Health

    Citation Excerpt :

    In 2005, the annual national cost of preterm birth was estimated at over $26 billion.11 Because initial hospital costs (representing inpatient maternity care and newborn care between birth and the first homebound hospital discharge) are largely driven by the expense of neonatal intensive care, an inverse relationship between gestational age at birth and costs has been identified.12–14 However, due to the larger number of infants born during the late to moderate preterm period (32–36 weeks of gestation), the reduction of preterm birth incidence at virtually any stage of gestation should yield considerable cost savings.15–18

    To develop generalizable methods for estimating the economic impact of preterm birth at the community level on initial hospital expenditures, educational attainment and lost earnings as well as to estimate potential savings associated with reductions in preterm birth.

    The retrospective, population-based analysis used vital statistics and population demographics from Hamilton County, Ohio, USA, in 2012.

    We adjusted previously reported, mean initial hospital cost estimates (stratified by each week of gestation) to 2012 dollars using national cost-to-charge ratios. Next, we calculated excess costs attributable to prematurity and potential hospital cost savings, which could be realized by prolonging each preterm pregnancy by a single week of gestation. Using reported associations among preterm birth, educational attainment and adult earnings, we developed generalizable formulas to calculate lost academic degrees and lost income estimates attributable to preterm birth. The formulas generated estimates based on local population demographics.

    The annual initial hospital cost associated with 1444 preterm infants was estimated at $93 million. In addition, over 9000 fewer college degrees and over $300 million in lost annual earnings were attributed to local adults who were born preterm. Prolonging each preterm birth by 1 week could potentially reduce initial hospital expenditures by over $25 million. Additional potential savings could be realized as healthier infants attain higher levels of education and earnings as adults.

    The generalizable methods developed for estimating the economic impact of preterm birth at the community level can be used by any community in which vital statistics and population demographics are available. Cost estimates can serve to rally support for local stakeholder investment in developing strategies for preterm birth intervention leading to improved pregnancy outcomes.

View all citing articles on Scopus

Recommended articles (6)

  • Research article

    High-grade CIN on cervical biopsy and predictors of the subsequent cone histology results in women undergoing immediate conization

    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 186, 2015, pp. 68-74

    To identify the clinical/colposcopic variables that associate with low-grade/negative cone histology in screening-age women undergoing conization for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The follow-up outcomes of study participants were also compared.

    In this retrospective cohort study, 585 consecutive screening-age women who underwent immediate conization for CIN2-3 were divided according to cone histology (CIN2+ versus ≤CIN1) and assessed in relation to clinical/colposcopic variables by univariate and multivariate analyses.

    Low-grade [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=52.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22.49–123.34] or normal (AOR=9.81, 95% CI 2.38–40.44) colposcopic impression and CIN2 on cervical biopsy (AOR=19.59, 95% CI 6.62–57.92) associated with CIN1/negative cone histology. Multivariate analysis also showed that Eastern European ethnicity (AOR=0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.52) and high-risk-Human Papillomavirus (hr-HPV)-positivity (AOR=0.38, 95% CI 0.17–0.87), associated with CIN2+ cone histology. Overall, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of high-grade recurrence during the 2-year follow-up. Conversely, a higher rate of high-grade recurrence was present in CIN2-3 (positive cone margins) than in CIN1/negative cone histology (21.9% versus 7.4%, P=0.008, respectively).

    The presence of CIN2 on cervical biopsy and a low-grade colposcopic impression were predictive of a minor cone histology, unless the subject was of East European ethnicity or was positive for hr-HPV test. Given the follow-up outcomes, the same women need to perform a close monitoring. However, positive cone margins in women with CIN2-3 cone histology seem to define a population at greater risk of high-grade recurrence.

  • Research article

    Predicting of disease genes for gestational diabetes mellitus based on network and functional consistency

    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 186, 2015, pp. 91-96

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a world-widely prevalent disease with adverse outcomes. This study aims to identify its disease genes through bioinformatics analysis.

    (Video) Prevention of Preterm Birth

    The raw gene expression profiling (ID: GSE19649) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 3 GDM and 2 healthy control specimens. Then limma package in R was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs, criteria: p value <0.05 and |log2 FC|>1). Simultaneously, known disease genes of GDM were downloaded from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database. Then, DEGs and known disease genes were uploaded to STRING to investigate their protein–protein interactions (PPIs). Gene pairs with confidence score >0.8 were utilized to construct PPI network. Furthermore, pathway and functional enrichment analyses were performed through KOBAS (criterion: p value <0.05) and DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) software (criterion: false discovery rate <0.05), respectively.

    A total of 404 DEGs were identified, including 273 up-regulated and 131 down-regulated DEGs. Moreover, 68 known disease genes of GDM were obtained. Then, 190 gene pairs were identified to significantly interact with each other. After deleting PPIs between DEGs, PPI network was constructed, consisting of 115 gene pairs. Furthermore, genes in PPI network were significantly enriched in 10 functions and 8 pathways.

    Based on PPI network and functional consistency, 6 candidate genes of GDM were considered to be candidate disease genes of GDM, including CYP1A1, LEPR, ESR1, GYS2, AGRP, and CACNA1G. However, further studies are required to validate these results.

  • Research article

    Lymphovascular space invasion and positive pelvic lymph nodes are independent risk factors for para-aortic nodal metastasis in endometrioid endometrial cancer

    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 186, 2015, pp. 63-67

    Para-aortic lymph node dissemination in endometrioid endometrial cancer is uncommon, and systematic para-aortic lymph node dissection increases morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify a subgroup of endometrioid endometrial cancer patients who did not require para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

    All patients who had undergone surgery for endometrioid endometrial cancer between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with higher risk factors for nodal metastasis and inadequate lymphadenectomy were excluded. Para-aortic lymph node dissemination was defined as nodal metastasis when pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection was performed, when para-aortic lymph node recurrence occurred after negative para-aortic lymph node dissection or when para-aortic lymph node dissection was not performed. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the pathological features as predictors for para-aortic lymphatic dissemination.

    A total of 827 patients were assessed, 516 (62.4%) of whom underwent pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection. Sixty-seven (13%) patients (37 with only pelvic, 26 with pelvic and para-aortic, and 4 with only para-aortic metastasis) had positive lymph nodes in the pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection group. Multivariate analysis confirmed positive pelvic nodes (odds ratio 20.58; p<0.001) and lymphovascular space invasion (odds ratio 8.10; p=0.022) as independent predictors of para-aortic lymphatic dissemination. When these two factors were absent (in 83% of patients), the predicted probability of para-aortic lymph node metastasis was 0.1%.

    Positive pelvic nodes and lymphovascular space invasion are highly associated with para-aortic lymph node metastasis. These markers may be useful for identifying those patients who require para-aortic lymph node dissection.

  • Research article

    Cervical HI-RTE elastography and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study

    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 186, 2015, pp. 80-84

    To study cervix elastography measurement and its relation with pregnancy outcome.

    A two year prospective longitudinal study evaluated cervical elasticity by HI-RTE (Hitachi real-time tissue elastography) imaging during three trimesters of pregnancy.

    The main outcome measure was elastography index the cervical elastogram color-coded.


    Three hundred eighty seven measurements were realized among 72 pregnant women prospectively enrolled. In the first trimester, the elasticity index was significantly lower in women who subsequently had unfavorable outcome than in women who delivered at term (respectively, EI=0.51 (±0.04) and 0.59 (±0.02); P=0.037). The negative predictive value of posterior lip color (blue, blue-green=hard cervix) was high NPV=83.8 95% CI [68.8–92.4] in the first trimester (SE=64.7 95% CI [41.3–82.7]; SP=60.8 95% CI [47.1–72.9]; VPP=35.5 95% CI [21.1–53.1]). A first-trimester elasticity index threshold value ≤0.38 had a specificity of 98.0% and a NPV of 80.9% (Se 29.4%, PPV 83.3%). This index value, when combined with a cervical length less than or equal to 36mm, increased the risk of adverse outcome (HR 8.87 95% CI [3.22–23.7]).

    Cervical elastography index is associated with unfavorable obstetrical outcomes, independently of cervical length.

    The study was registered in under Identifier number NCT01032564.

  • Research article

    Impact of a randomized trial on maintenance tocolysis on length of hospital admission of women with threatened preterm labor in The Netherlands

    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 186, 2015, pp. 8-11

    The APOSTEL-II trial was a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial, assessing the effectiveness of maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine. The trial showed maintenance tocolysis not to have an effect on perinatal outcome. Objective of the current study is to evaluate the effect of a negative trial on the length of hospital admission of women with threatened preterm labor.

    We evaluated length of hospital admission of all patients admitted with threatened preterm labor with a gestational age <32 weeks in 8 perinatal centers that participated in the APOSTEL-II trial. We studied only the first admission with threatened preterm labor, readmissions were excluded. We distinguished between the period before, the period during and the period after the trial. In a subgroup analysis, we differentiated for the group of women who delivered and for the group of women who did not deliver during the initial admission.

    The mean length of hospital admission was 9.3 days before the start of the trial, 8.4 days during the recruitment period and 8.1 days after the trial was completed. The difference in mean length of hospital admission before and during the recruitment period was significantly different (p<001).

    The length of hospital admission of women with threatened preterm labor is found to be reduced during the recruitment period of the APOSTEL-II trial. This shows that the conduct of a randomized controlled trial itself has the potential to change daily practice.

  • Research article

    Hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy) in the assessment of tubal patency in endometriosis patients

    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 186, 2015, pp. 22-25

    Tubal patency in women with endometriosis has traditionally been evaluated by laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy) in the assessment of tubal patency in these women.

    A retrospective study was conducted at Physiopathology of Human Reproduction Unit. Infertile women who underwent HyCoSy and then a laparoscopy (dye test) within 6 months from the HyCoSy were included. Tubal patency was assessed by HyCoSy and the findings were compared with the results of laparoscopy, which was considered the gold standard for assessment of tubal patency. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) and positive and negative likelihood ratios (Lh+, Lh−) were calculated including the 95% confidence interval (CI).

    A total of 1452 women underwent HyCoSy and 126 of them received a laparoscopy within 6 months from the HyCoSy. Of the 126 women, 42 (33.3%) had a diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis and 84 (66.7%) had no endometriosis. In the endometriosis population, HyCoSy showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, Lh+ and Lh− of 85% (95% CI 62–96), 93% (95% CI 82–97), 81% (95% CI 58–94), 94% (95% CI 84–98), 12.6 (95% CI 4.8–33) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.05–0.4) respectively. In the non-endometriosis group, HyCoSy showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+ and LR− of 85% (95% CI 65–95), 93% (95% CI 87–96), 71% (95% CI 53–85), 97% (95% CI 92–99), 13.2 (95% CI 6.9–25) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.06–0.3) respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of HyCoSy was 91% in the endometriosis group and 92% in the non-endometriosis patients.

    (Video) Multifetal gestation

    HyCoSy showed high accuracy in evaluating tubal patency in infertile non-endometriosis women and in those affected by endometriosis.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


What is perinatal outcome? ›

Outcome measure

Adverse perinatal outcomes were defined as the presence of either of the following: stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, admission to neonatal ICU and first minute birth asphyxia.

How does multiple pregnancies cause preterm delivery? ›

It is generally believed that the risk of preterm labor and PPROM is increased with multiple gestation because of excessive uterine distension (because the same higher risk is observed with polyhydramnios). In addition, the more fetuses present, the higher the rate of preterm birth.

What is the definition of singleton pregnancy? ›

Definition: The birth of only one child during a single delivery with a gestation of 20 weeks or more.

What factors contribute to preterm deliveries? ›

Causes include multiple pregnancies, infections and chronic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure; however, often no cause is identified. There could also be a genetic influence.

What is an example of perinatal outcome? ›

The dependent variable is adverse perinatal outcome, defined as a newborn with the occurrence of any of the following outcomes: low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, stillbirth or neonatal death before 7 days of life.

What are poor perinatal outcomes? ›

Poor perinatal outcome was defined . either by perinatal death, or, in surviving babies, by a birthweight of less than 1500 g, and/or a gestational age at birth of 32 weeks or less.

What is the biggest risk factor for preterm birth? ›

These three risk factors make you most likely to have preterm labor and give birth early:
  • You've had a premature baby in the past.
  • You're pregnant with multiples (twins, triplets or more).
  • You have problems with your uterus or cervix now or you've had them in the past.

What are two major risks of multiple birth pregnancies? ›

Being pregnant with multiples doesn't necessarily mean that your pregnancy will be problematic. However, women carrying multiples do have a higher chance of developing complications such as high blood pressure and preterm labor. For this reason, all multiple pregnancies are considered high-risk.

What is the most significant risk of a multiple pregnancy? ›

The most common complications include the following:
  • Preterm labor and birth. Over 60 percent of twins and nearly all higher-order multiples are premature (born before 37 weeks). ...
  • Gestational hypertension. ...
  • Anemia. ...
  • Birth defects. ...
  • Miscarriage. ...
  • Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

What is an example of a singleton? ›

Example. The Singleton pattern ensures that a class has only one instance and provides a global point of access to that instance. It is named after the singleton set, which is defined to be a set containing one element. The office of the President of the United States is a Singleton.

Does singleton mean single? ›

Word forms: singletons

countable noun. A singleton is someone who is neither married nor in a long-term relationship.

What is the problem with singleton? ›

The most important drawback of the singleton pattern is sacrificing transparency for convenience. Consider the earlier example. Over time, you lose track of the objects that access the user object and, more importantly, the objects that modify its properties.

What are five 5 risk factors for preterm labor? ›

Some risk factors for preterm birth include delivering a premature baby in the past, being pregnant with multiples, tobacco use and substance abuse, and short time (less than 18 months) between pregnancies. Additionally, pregnancy complications can result in preterm birth because the baby has to be delivered early.

What are four priority concerns for the preterm neonate? ›

Premature babies are especially vulnerable to temperature instability, feeding difficulties, low blood sugar, infections, and breathing difficulties (Table ​

What are the determinants of preterm birth? ›

The main determinant factors for preterm birth are having antenatal care follow-up, attending secondary education and above, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, having HIV/AIDS, and history of abortion.

What are the most common cause of perinatal mortality? ›

Preterm birth is the most common cause of perinatal mortality, causing almost 30 percent of neonatal deaths. Infant respiratory distress syndrome, in turn, is the leading cause of death in preterm infants, affecting about 1% of newborn infants. Birth defects cause about 21 percent of neonatal death.

What is the perinatal stage of pregnancy? ›

What is the perinatal period? Per the AAPD, the perinatal period begins at the 20th -28th week of gestation at the 20th to 28th week of gestation and ends 1 to 4 weeks after delivery. It is characterized by complex physiological changes that may adversely affect oral health.

What is perinatal care and why is it important? ›

Perinatal period covers pregnancy, delivery and postpartum. The care includes promoting full term babies, reducing pre-term births, stillbirths and. By avoiding pre-term or early births we can prevent or reduce the risk of neurological and developmental disorders, congenital anomalies and stillbirths.

What are risk factors for poor outcome in pregnancy? ›

Women who had a previous pregnancy with a poor birth outcome have an increased risk for a subse- quent poor birth outcome. Maternal smoking and substance abuse increase the risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. Social, economic, and neighborhood factors are also associated with adverse birth outcomes.

What are perinatal problems? ›

A 'perinatal' mental health problem is one that you experience any time from becoming pregnant up to a year after you give birth. Having a baby is a big life event. It's natural to experience a range of emotions during pregnancy and after giving birth.

What is the cause of perinatal conditions? ›

Leading perinatal conditions include birth trauma and consequences of preterm birth. Although most deaths in this category occur during the perinatal period, a few deaths that are caused by perinatal conditions occur later in life.

Why is preterm a negative outcome? ›

Preterm babies can suffer lifelong effects such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, visual and hearing impairments, and poor health and growth. Babies born only a few weeks early (late preterm, 34-36 weeks) often have long-term difficulties such as: Behavioral and social-emotional problems. Learning difficulties.

Which preterm babies are at greatest risk of health problems complications )? ›

Babies born before 34 weeks of pregnancy are mostly likely to have health problems, but babies born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are also at increased risk of having health problems related to premature birth.

What are interventions for preterm births? ›

Examples of current, relevant interventions that are well known as active areas for preterm birth research include cervical cerclage and cervical pessary; both of these treatments aim to support the cervix mechanically to prevent cervical dilation and consequent preterm birth.

What are the three types of multiple pregnancies? ›

A multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where you're carrying more than one baby at a time. If you're carrying two babies, they are called twins. Three babies that are carried during one pregnancy are called triplets. You can also carry more than three babies at one time (high-order multiples).

What are the challenges of parents who have multiples? ›

Parents of multiples may feel socially isolated. Fatigue, lack of personal time, demands related to care of the children, and financial problems are common problems. It is easy to focus entirely on caring for multiples, but don't abandon all of your hobbies and interests.

What are 3 pregnancy related risk factors? ›

High blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, epilepsy, thyroid disease, heart or blood disorders, poorly controlled asthma, and infections can increase pregnancy risks.

What two groups have the highest risk for unplanned pregnancy? ›

Nearly half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended. The percentage of unintended pregnancies is higher among: Non-Hispanic Black women, who have a prevalence more than twice that of non-Hispanic white women. Women with incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level compared with women with higher incomes.

Why are multiple births becoming more common? ›

Multiple births are more common than they used to be, due to the increased use of assisted reproductive techniques, in particular the use of fertility drugs. Older women are more likely to have a multiple pregnancy and, because the average age at which women give birth is rising, this is also a contributing factor.

What is the difference between prenatal and perinatal? ›

Prenatal and perinatal psychology explores the psychological and psychophysiological effects and implications of the earliest experiences of the individual, before birth (prenatal), as well as during and immediately after childbirth (perinatal).

What is considered perinatal loss? ›

Perinatal loss is commonly defined as loss of an infant through death via unintended or involuntary loss of pregnancy by miscarriage, early loss (less than 20 weeks), stillbirth (> 20 weeks gestation), or neonatal loss (newborn through 28 days of life) (Robinson et al. 1999, DiMarco et al. 2002).

What is a perinatal patient? ›

Perinatal care means the provision of care during pregnancy, labor, delivery, postpartum and neonatal periods.

What is the importance of perinatal stage? ›

Perinatal period covers pregnancy, delivery and postpartum. The care includes promoting full term babies, reducing pre-term births, stillbirths and. By avoiding pre-term or early births we can prevent or reduce the risk of neurological and developmental disorders, congenital anomalies and stillbirths.

What are the perinatal factors? ›

Risk factors in the perinatal period include pregnancy-related complications, prematurity and low birth weight, and infection exposure during pregnancy or at time of birth.

Why is perinatal care important? ›

Regular prenatal care throughout your pregnancy helps to catch potential concerns early and reduces the risk of pregnancy and birth complications. As soon as you suspect you are pregnant, make an appointment with your OB/Gyn.

Who is a perinatal infant? ›

The perinatal period is defined as pregnancy and the first postnatal year2. These early days of an infant's life are crucial for brain development; disturbances in early parent-infant relationships can impact negatively upon the child's development.

Is perinatal the same as neonatal? ›

The perinatal period commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of gestation and ends seven completed days after birth. The neonatal period begins with birth and ends 28 complete days after birth.

What is perinatal and examples? ›

Perinatal is the period of time when you become pregnant and up to a year after giving birth. You might also have heard of the following terms: Antenatal or pre-natal meaning 'before birth' Postnatal or postpartum meaning 'after birth'

What are perinatal care measures? ›

Perinatal Care measures focuses on achieving integrated, coordinated, patient-centered care for clinically uncomplicated pregnancies and births.

How do you deal with perinatal loss? ›

Dealing with a pregnancy loss
  1. Allow yourself to experience the pain of your loss. People experience grief both physically and emotionally. ...
  2. Be patient with yourself. ...
  3. Get support from those around you. ...
  4. Create memories. ...
  5. Looking to the future.

What are the 2 perinatal core measures? ›

Whoa, baby! CMS has announced that it's officially rolling out two new electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) focused on perinatal care in 2023: ePC-02 (Cesarean Birth) and ePC-07 (Severe Obstetric Complications). More importantly, both of these measures will be required and publicly reported starting in 2024.

What are 3 benefits of prenatal care? ›

5 important benefits of prenatal care that every mom-to-be must...
  • #1. Reduced risk of birth defects and pregnancy complications. ...
  • #2. Analyze the baby growth and development. ...
  • #3. Personal health progress and lifestyle tips. ...
  • #4. Regular testing opportunities. ...
  • #5. Nutrition care.
Feb 4, 2021


1. Preterm labor
(Ina Irabon)
2. Multiple Gestations or Pregnancy explained by Doctor 👶👶👶👶👶
(Vitalab Fertility Clinic - Sandton and Umhlanga)
3. Spontaneous Preterm Labor II
(Ajit Virkud)
4. RSV Vaccines - Pediatric/Maternal
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
5. KELLY FERGUSON - Phtalates and preterm birth: A pooled analysis of 16 US cohorts
(ISEE Global Education Channel)
6. Improving Perinatal Outcomes through Research
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Geoffrey Lueilwitz

Last Updated: 03/15/2023

Views: 6177

Rating: 5 / 5 (80 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Geoffrey Lueilwitz

Birthday: 1997-03-23

Address: 74183 Thomas Course, Port Micheal, OK 55446-1529

Phone: +13408645881558

Job: Global Representative

Hobby: Sailing, Vehicle restoration, Rowing, Ghost hunting, Scrapbooking, Rugby, Board sports

Introduction: My name is Geoffrey Lueilwitz, I am a zealous, encouraging, sparkling, enchanting, graceful, faithful, nice person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.